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friday :: october 31, 2003

> is a group of individualists.
> is an initiative that counts on participation on the part of other individuals.
> the works and diffusion of the same one are made parallelly in two surroundings: in the physical plane and in the Internet, investigating new possibilities, routes that are generated from the superposition of these.

Smoothing the confrontation between geographic/physical surroundings, understood like 'real world,' and Internet/ cyber space like 'virtual world,' we constructed our works interlacing the codes (topography) of these two systems, thus acting in unique and authentic surroundings, where the computer science rules to the physical surroundings and the inverse one are applied, opening new bonds or departure points for the exploration and new adventures.

The direct actions or direct interventions on scale 1:1 are made in urban, suburban and rural territories. Although these are planned previously in a determined project, are carried out of a totally unexpected and improvised way, invoking the adventurous spirit, sending us to the children' primordial feeling, when introducing in spaces and not known situations; generations of shepherds, doing 'transhumancias,' survival ways, that cross the geographycal masses guided by own necessities... >from *( RoToR ) website*.

related context
faites de la lumiere: in a world of darkness, make public your light. june 16, 2003
> citymine[d] + umos presentation. may 30, 2003
> psy-geo-conflux: the meaning of living in a city. may 14, 2003
> openfridays@straddle3 2002-2003 [ca].

urban exploration: rotorrr strikes poble now

rotorrr presentation
friday october 31, 2003. 20 h
straddle3. c/ riereta, 32 1-3

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wednesday :: october 29, 2003
skype: p2p telephony

Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology was first widely deployed and popularized by file-sharing applications such as Napster and KaZaA. In this context, P2P technology allows users to share, search for and download files. A true P2P system, in our opinion, is one where all nodes in a network join together dynamically to participate in traffic routing-, processing- and bandwidth intensive tasks that would otherwise be handled by central servers.

Decentralized P2P networks, such as FastTrack (the P2P technology behind KaZaA), have several advantages over traditional client-server networks. These networks scale indefinitely without decreasing search time and without the need for costly centralized resources. They utilize the processing and networking power of the end-users machines since these resources always grow in direct proportion to the network itself. Each new node added to the network adds potential processing power and bandwidth to the network.

For the Kazaa founders P2P telephony became a natural next step where P2P could have a significant disruptive impact and Skype was founded to develop the first P2P telephony network. Internet-based telephony Voice-over-IP (VoIP) has been around for years but has not reached the mainstream market.

Utilizing our experience in creating the most popular decentralized P2P network in history (KaZaA) and the largest P2P-based content distribution network (Joltid PeerEnabler), the Skype team has succeeded in leveraging all of the available resources in a network. This has allowed us to raise the call completion rate and quality to levels approaching, and often exceeding, that of POTS (Plain Old Telephony System). This is all achieved without the need for costly centralized resources. In addition, we also like to think that we have created the most user friendly interface around! >from *What is Skype? P2P Telephony Explained*.

related context
Voice over IP (VoIP), also called Internet telephony or IP telephony. wikipedia
> new VoIP standard for videoconferencing technology that routes phone calls over the internet. new standard makes videoconferencing as easy as email. ITU adopts H.350 architecture developed by Internet2 Working Group. september 3, 2003
> wireless IP telephony: SymPhone system by TeleSym.
> grokster and morpheus survive: 21st-century technology ban fails. may 5, 2003

phone conversation: second edition technology

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monday :: october 27, 2003
conflict interaction of couples

Married heterosexual couples can learn a great deal from gay and lesbian couples according to the first published observational studies of homosexual relationships. "Gay and lesbian couples are a lot more mature, more considerate in trying to improve a relationship and have a greater awareness of equality in a relationship than straight couples," said John Gottman, a University of Washington emeritus professor of psychology who directed the research along with Robert Levenson, a University of California, Berkeley, psychology professor.

"Straight couples start a conflict discussion in a much more negative place than do gays and lesbian couples. Homosexuals start the same kind of discussions with more humor and affection, are less domineering and show considerably more positive emotions than heterosexual couples. The way a discussion starts is critical. If it starts off in a bad way in a heterosexual relationship, we have found that it will become even more negative 96 percent of the time. Gays and lesbians are warmer, friendlier and less belligerent. You see it over and over in their discussions, and their partner is receiving the message they are communicating. In turn, their partner is allowing himself or herself to be influenced in a positive way. With married heterosexual couples a discussion is much more of a power struggle with someone being invalidated." Gay and lesbian relationships seem to be marked by what Gottman calls "the triumph of positive emotions over negative emotions."

Dan Yoshimoto, a UW psychology doctoral student who worked on the studies, added that the ways gays and lesbians resolve conflict may be the glue that maintains stability in homosexual relationships.

"The overall implication of this research is that we have to shake off all of the stereotypes of homosexual relationships and have more respect for them as committed relationships. Gays and lesbians may be more competent at having a mature relationship. Our data suggests our society needs to reconsider its policy and that we should value and honor love wherever we find it," Gottman said.

The National Institute of Mental Health funded the research. >from *Gay, lesbian couples can teach heterosexuals how to improve relationships* october 20, 2003

related context
UCLA scientists find genes organize male and female brains differently; research suggests that sexual identity is 'hard-wired' before birth. october 21, 2003
> sexual orientation 'hard-wired' before birth - startling new evidence revealed in the blink of an eye. october 2, 2003
> biodiversity include sexual diversity: extended concept of biodiversity. june 14, 2002

what do you both need...
glue, oil, or perhaps just adhesive tape?

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friday :: october 24, 2003
zoomorphic: new trend in architecture

The V&A this autumn open Zoomorphic, an exhibition which examines the new wave of contemporary architecture inspired by animals. The exhibition will feature more than 40 buildings by international architects. Either structurally, visually or organically, the buildings owe their forms to the animal kingdom creating extraordinary shapes and designs which function in new ways.

Not since the emergence of Art Nouveau a century ago has there been such an eruption of buildings inspired by the natural world. New building materials and computer design software have made possible this generation of buildings... The animal analogues in these architects' work range across the entire animal kingdom. They include houses like starfish and butterflies, museum buildings like armadillos and cocoons, and a range of animalistic buildings that keep alive the tradition of eccentric seaside architecture. Zoomorphic will display examples of such buildings from around the world, none more than 15 years old and many still under construction.

The curator of Zoomorphic, Hugh Aldersey-Williams, said: "Some of the most arresting and interesting architecture being designed today by the world's greatest architects is inspired by animal forms, either in a very direct way or when architects borrow more subtly from the biological world. Some of the architecture is whimsical and fantastic, but there is also a serious scientific impulse. As architects learn more from the world of biology, they will be able to create buildings more in harmony with both the natural and built environment." >from *ZOOMORPHIC. A V&A exhibition on contemporary architecture inspired by animals*. September 18, 2003 - January 4, 2004.

related context
zoomorphic exhibition website.
> project zoomorphic by hugh aldersey-williams. "For me, this exhibition shows the growing importance of the cross-currents between the arts and the sciences. Most of my other projects have been biased towards one or the other; here, they come together."

inhabiting a zoomorphic structure building
based on aardvark forelimbs [oryteropus]

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wednesday :: october 22, 2003
yanomami, spirit of the forest

Yanomami, Spirit of the Forest brought international artists into contact with the shamans of Watoriki (Windy Mountain), a Yanomami village in the Brazilian Amazon. The ambition of this exhibition [may-october, 2003] was not to lapse into exoticism or paternalism, but to connect our conception of images and representations with that of another culture, exploring how the traditional yet constantly evolving metaphysical world of the Yanomami echoes the various facets of the 'savage mind' still at work in our society.

This exchange was organized in collaboration with the shamans of Watoriki and Davi Kopenawa, their spokesman. Consequently, Yanomami, Spirit of the Forest features neither tribal feather ornaments, nor any 'Amerindian' or 'crossover' art. Nor is this an ethnological or humanitarian exhibition. Treating Yanomami thought on an equal footing, this exhibition's films, photographs, paintings, sculptures and video installations offer a web of correspondences relating to the major themes of the cosmological ideas and visionary experience of the eleven shamans of the village of Watoriki.

The exhibition features work by Claudia Andujar, Lothar Baumgarten, Vincent Beaurin, Raymond Depardon, Gary Hill, Tony Oursler, Wolfgang Staehle, Naoki Takizawa, Adriana Varej„o , Stephen Vitiello, Geraldo Yanomami, Joseca Yanomami and Volkmar Ziegler.

The exhibition is organized by the Fondation Cartier with the participation of the Yanomami of Watoriki village, Brazil, in collaboration with Survival International, the Brazilian NGO CCPY and anthropologist Bruce Albert. >from *Yanomami, Spirit of the Forest exhibition site*. October 15-16, 2003.

related context
survival international for tribal peoples. Survival is a worldwide organisation supporting tribal peoples. It stands for their right to decide their own future and helps them protect their lives, lands and human rights.
> yanomami.
> the shamantic web: art and mind in emergence by roy ascott.

odilon redon spirit of the forest stares at yanomami quiver and arrow tips

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monday :: october 20, 2003
first yuhangyuan in orbit: china's first manned spacecraft in orbit

China's first manned spaceship - Shenzhou V (Divine Vessel V) blasts off into space at the Jiu Quan Satellite Launch Center at October 15, 2003. Yang Liwei, China's first astronaut in space [yuhangyuan in chinese], spent 21 hours in space, orbiting the Earth 14 times. Shenzhou-5 traveled 600,000 km during the flight.

China became the third state to put a man into space after the former Soviet Union and the United States. [The former Soviet Union sent Yuri Gagarin up in 1961. John Glenn became the first American in orbit in 1962]

In 1992, the country started a manned spaceflight program, in the wake of success in sending man-made earth satellites into space. Spacecraft of the Shenzhou series ventured, successfully, into the outer space four times from 1999 to 2002 under the program.

Yang's return to Earth from outer space signifies completion of the first step taken by China to implement its plans for space exploration. More steps are to follow -- attempts for space walk, rendezvous and docking of spaceships and setting up of a space lab.

Sometime from now, up in the space, high over the Earth, there will be a space station which, like Shenzhen-5 that has just made history, will be designed, built and manned by the Chinese. >from *China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation*. October 15-16, 2003.

related context
backgrounder: chronology of china's space program.
> witnesses suggest change of course for nasa human space flight programs. house committee on science, at the hearing on 'the future of human space flight. october 16, 2003
> interorbital systems to launch first teenager to space. september 26, 2003
> eu and china are set to collaborate on galileo -the european global system of satellite navigation. september 18, 2003
> columbia accident investigation board releases final report. august 26, 2003
> the international space station overview.
> iss, expedition 1 . november 2, 2000

i did not see Great Wall from space [yang liwe]

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friday :: october 17, 2003
neuroscience networks: data-sharing in an information age

To study the brain from molecules to behaviour, neuroscientists face the challenge of communicating an emerging wealth of information in coherent accessible forms.

The completion of the human genome project has ushered in a new era in which biology has become an information science. In this new era, sharing of information is quickly becoming a critical aspect of scientific discovery. As directors of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes dedicated to neuroscience, we recognize several areas of research where sharing of primary data will be necessary for us to reach our scientific goals, including brain-mapping, genetics, and clinical trials. Progress in each of these areas will require not only new tools for sharing information but a change in our scientific culture...

While there are several initiatives at NIH aimed at overcoming the informatics barriers to sharing data and facilitating collaboration, coordination, and computation, we recognize that not all of the impediments to data-sharing are technical. The advent of neurobiology as an information science also demonstrates that the academic culture in which our science develops and the publication culture in which our science is communicated will need to change... the nature of publication itself needs to change in an era when some of the most important contributions will emerge from comprehensive descriptions of new landscapes (analogous to new genomes and new galaxies) rather than tests of specific hypotheses...

Scientific publication, as we have known it in print, is slow and expensive, with access limited to those with either the funds to purchase an individual subscription or the proximity to a library with an institutional subscription. Data-sharing also means open-access publishing so that data, whether from mapping efforts or from hypothesis-driven experiments, become available quickly and freely to the scientific community. As we emerge from the 'decade of the brain,' we are entering a decade for which data-sharing will be the currency for progress in neuroscience. Efforts driven by collaboration, coordination, and computation should yield the data, tools, and resources that neuroscientists will need in the coming decades. We hope that new electronic publications with open access will accelerate this change and provide the vehicle for disseminating the most exciting discoveries in neuroscience in a rapid, respected, and ready format. >from *Neuroscience Networks: Data-sharing in an Information Age by Thomas R Insel, Nora D Volkow, Ting-Kai Li, James F Battey, Story C Landis*. PLoS Biology, Volume 1, Issue 1, October, 2003.

related context
human brain project.
> why PLoS became a publisher. october 13, 2003
> free science journal hits press. new journal challenges pay-per-view science. october 10, 2003
> an economic analysis of scientific research publishing. a report commissioned by the wellcome trust. january, 2003/ revised edition, october, 2003
> science commons: building a free flow of knowledge. march 15, 2002
> public library of science journals: a new model for scientific publishing. september 10, 2001

crimp old fences to open-access landscapes

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wednesday :: october 15, 2003
brain is a dynamic network: new paradigm for how the brain functions

Scientists are developing a new paradigm for how the brain functions. They propose that the brain is not a huge fixed network, as had been previously thought, but a dynamic, changing network that adapts continuously to meet the demands of communication and computational needs.

Salk Institute professor Terrence Sejnowski (a pioneer in the field of computational neuroscience) and University of Cambridge professor Simon Laughlin argue that the human brain has evolved to operate as an enormously efficient "hybrid device," capable of making far more sophisticated computations than the most powerful computers, and the long-distance communication systems in brains have been optimized by evolution for energy efficiency.

"In the past, we were only able to look at brain function by looking at single neurons or local networks of neurons. We were only able to see the trees, so to speak," said Sejnowski. "With breakthroughs in recording techniques including brain imaging, which gives us a global picture of brain activity, and advances in computational neurobiology, we can now take a more global perspective. We're looking at the entire forest, and we're asking the question: How has the forest evolved?" >from *Salk Researcher Provides New View on How the Brain Functions*. September 25, 2003.

related context
computational neuroscience on the world wide web.
> synapses: plasticity and stability. february 19, 2003
> synaptic plasticity: how experiences rewire the brain. january 23, 2003
> genes, neurons, internet: organizing principles of networks. november 11, 2002
> brain's pattern perception in artificial world: rise to maladaptive superstitions. april 10, 2002
> fantasy and reality handled by different parts of the brain. april 8, 2002
> human perception controlled by single neurones. january 29, 2002

brain synaptic forest: a dynamic network

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monday :: october 13, 2003
low latent inhibition: one of the biological bases of creativity

Psychologists from University of Toronto and Harvard University have identified one of the biological bases of creativity. The brains of creative people appear to be more open to incoming stimuli from the surrounding environment. Other people's brains might shut out this same information through a process called 'latent inhibition' - defined as an animal's unconscious capacity to ignore stimuli that experience has shown are irrelevant to its needs.

"This means that creative individuals remain in contact with the extra information constantly streaming in from the environment," says co-author and U of T psychology professor Jordan Peterson. "The normal person classifies an object, and then forgets about it, even though that object is much more complex and interesting than he or she thinks. The creative person, by contrast, is always open to new possibilities."

The authors hypothesize that latent inhibition may be positive when combined with high intelligence and good working memory - the capacity to think about many things at once - but negative otherwise. Peterson states: "If you are open to new information, new ideas, you better be able to intelligently and carefully edit and choose. If you have 50 ideas, only two or three are likely to be good. You have to be able to discriminate or you'll get swamped."

"Scientists have wondered for a long time why madness and creativity seem linked," says Carson. "It appears likely that low levels of latent inhibition and exceptional flexibility in thought might predispose to mental illness under some conditions and to creative accomplishment under others."

"We are very excited by the results of these studies," says Peterson. "It appears that we have not only identified one of the biological bases of creativity but have moved towards cracking an age-old mystery: the relationship between genius, madness and the doors of perception." >from *Biological basis for creativity linked to mental illness. Creative people more open to stimuli from environment *. September 30, 2003.

related context
abstract thought on non-human animals: scientific and ethical implications. october 16, 2001
> context processing: mental operating system. january 4, 2002

keep your brain open to context

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friday :: october 10, 2003
costs of intelligence

Learning allows an animal to adjust its behavior in an adaptive way in a changing environment, where fitness consequences of a given action vary from generation to generation, or even within the lifetime. While fitness benefits of learning are relatively well understood, we know little about fitness costs of learning ability, constraints on its evolution, and the nature of heritable variation on which natural selection can act. As with any fitness-related trait, knowledge of these aspects is essential to understanding why, how, and when learning ability evolves under natural selection

The existence of lines that evolved a higher learning ability (High-learning lines) and poorly learning lines of the same origin (Low-learning lines) opens an opportunity to study the fitness costs of an ability to learn. Such costs have been postulated - neural structures and processes are energetically expensive, which should have consequences for survival, reproduction or offspring quality, especially under food shortage. Yet, there is little evidence for such costs. To address these costs, we compared larval competitive ability of populations that evolved improved learning with the competitive ability of the control populations. When food was scarce, the flies from the High-learning lines showed a lower competitive ability than the Low-learning lines. Thus, the evolution of a better learning ability in the High-learning lines was associated with a reduction of larval competitive ability. This is the first direct evidence of an evolutionary trade-off between the ability to learn and another ecologically important trait.

The cost described above is a constitutive cost of learning ability, paid by individuals with a genetically high learning ability, whether or not they actually use this ability. However, the act of learning is itself likely to be costly in terms of energy used for processing and storing information. Thus, individuals that are forced to exercise their learning ability repeatedly over a long time should eventually start showing some decline in fertility or survival compared to individuals of the same genotype that are not forced to learn. >from *Evolutionary biology of learning ability in Drosophila*

related context
abstract thought on non-human animals: scientific and ethical implications. october 16, 2001
> chip implant for humans. october 30, 2000

a drosophila head goes shopping for intelligence
and finds out about its testis

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wednesday :: october 8, 2003
cooperation evolution: symbiotic organisms, social animals and inequity aversion

symbiotic organisms

Some legume plants, which rely on beneficial soil bacteria called rhizobia that infect their roots and provide nitrogen, seem to promote cooperation by exacting a toll on those bacterial strains that don't hold up their end of the symbiotic bargain. "In the case of soybeans, it appears that the plant applies sanctions against rhizobia that don't provide nitrogen. The plant does this by decreasing the oxygen supply to the rhizobia. In this way, the host plant can control the environment of the symbiotic bacteria to favor the evolution of cooperation by ensuring that bacterial 'cheaters' reproduce less." >from *Cooperation is a no-brainer for symbiotic bacteria*. September 4, 2003

network dynamics organize social structures

The ability of certain animals to form complex social systems -- particularly humans and social insects -- is considered by many biologists to be one of the pinnacles of biological adaptation and complexity. Social organization allows organisms to share labor, to specialize in tasks and to coordinate efforts. Through organization, social animals accomplish remarkable things... Network dynamics can create organized social structures when relatively simple connections between various individuals in a group create patterns of behavior of increasing complexity, much the same way as relatively simple mathematical rules can create mathematical patterns of great intricacy. >from *Social insects point to non-genetic origins of societies. Social structures form through group dynamics, not trait selection*. September 4, 2003

cooperation evolution: inequity aversion

During the evolution of cooperation, it may have become worthwhile for individuals to compare their own payoffs to those of others, in an effort to increase relative fitness. Humans do so, frequently rejecting payoffs that are perceived as unfair (even if they are advantageous). While there is some variation, this response is widespread across human populations. If a sense of fairness did evolve to promote cooperation, some nonhuman animals may exhibit inequity aversion as well. This is particularly likely in social species with tolerant societies, such that individuals may reasonably expect some equity between themselves and other group members. Identifying similar reactions in nonhuman primates as in humans offers insight into how such emotional reactions developed, providing researchers and economists new perspective on why humans make certain economic decisions in relation to efforts, gains and losses of others. >from *Yerkes researchers first to recognize sense of fairness in nonhuman primates. Findings shed light on the role of emotion in human economic interactions*. September 17, 2003

related context
commons-based peer production in the digitally networked environment. december 19, 2002
> neurophysiology of sympathy: patterns of brain activity. december 10, 2002
> human cooperation: biological basis revealed. july 19, 2002
> cooperation and affiliation: primary social behavior in primates. february 25, 2002

symbiotic bargain process: toll free?

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monday :: october 6, 2003
guess who died: on arafat in israeli art

"The exhibition 'Guess who died' is directly controlled by Yasser Arafat. He is the inspiration for its creation. Thus it is a show tied to certain causes and direct links (from the show to Arafat, and from him to Palestinian terrorism and resistance). Bearing the full title 'Guess who died: On Arafat in Israeli Art', the show will include paintings (from the 1970s on), photographs, and film excerpts, juxtaposing the personal and the ideological, the private and the institutional." Ory Dessau.

Participating Artists: Avner Ben-Gal, Tamar Getter, Pavel Wolberg, Michal Na'aman, Ruti Nemet, Eli Petel, Adam Rabinowitz. >from *Guess who died. Group Exhibition*. Dvir Gallery, Tel Aviv. July 24, 2003 -September 6, 2003

related context
latest israeli incitement: exhibition defaming president arafat in tel aviv. international press center. august 3, 2003
> tel aviv exhibition showcases arafat as bridge to understand palestinians. august 1, 2003
> al-wasiti art center: art bridge between palestine and the outside world. july 3, 2002
> mirroring evil: nazi imagery/recent art. march 18, 2002
> present tense by mona hatoum. january 9, 2002

arafat, who is yassir?

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friday :: october 3, 2003
autumn triggers chickadee's brain expansion

Every autumn, the chickadee roams a territory covering tens of square miles, gathering seeds and storing them in hundreds of hiding places in trees and on the ground. Over the harsh winter that follows, the tireless songbird, which weighs about 12 grams and fits inside the typical human hand, faithfully re-visits its caches to feed.

The chickadee's unerring spatial memory is remarkable enough, says Colin Saldanha, assistant professor of biological sciences at Lehigh University and an anatomist who has studied songbirds for six years. But it is what happens inside the tiny songbird's brain that Saldanha finds amazing. In the fall, as the chickadee is gathering and storing seeds, its hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for spatial organization and memory in many vertebrates, expands in volume by approximately 30 percent by adding new nerve cells. In the spring, when its feats of memory are needed less, the chickadee's hippocampus shrinks back to its normal size.

By studying neurogenesis in the black-capped chickadee, Saldanha hopes to learn how hormones help guide the brain's development and reorganization. He is particularly interested in the role played by the hormone estrogen in the growth of the hippocampus. "We're looking at the ability of nerve cells and connections to make estrogen in the brain and asking if this ability is involved in brain reorganization," he says. "We are the first lab, I think, to look at estrogen-synthesizing neurons in the songbird hippocampus at the electron-microscope level. We may, in fact, be the only lab using this technology to investigate songbird spatial memory." >from *As autumn approaches, this chickadee's brain begins to expand. New nerve cells put fall foraging on fast track*. September 11, 2003

related context
'good' chemical, neurons in brain elevated among exercise addicts. september 26, 2003
> synaptic plasticity: how experiences rewire the brain. january 23, 2003
> neurogenesis: observed in human adult brain. march 6, 2002
> autumnal equinox. september 22, 2001
> neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. november, 1998

chickadee hippocampus expansion composition.
have you gathered your seeds?

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wednesday :: october 1, 2003
nature of reality: buddhism and science

From its inception Buddhism has refined meditation methods in order to probe the nature of mind, using the mind itself as the instrument of investigation. For a millennium, the cumulative results of these investigations have been analyzed in Buddhist monastic universities using exacting scholarly methods.

The Dalai Lama come together with scientists, academics, and Buddhist scholar-practitioners for presentation and dialogue at MIT. Building on nearly two decades of private meetings, Investigating the Mind: Exchanges between Buddhism and Biobehavioral Science on How the Mind Works aims to identify the common ground between two powerful empirical traditions - Tibetan Buddhism and biobehavioral science. Both traditions are deeply committed to understanding how the mind works even as they approach these challenges in very different ways.

Investigating the Mind is co-sponsored by the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT and the Mind and Life Institute. The MIT conference will be the eleventh Mind and Life meeting (Mind and Life XI) and the first one convening in the West with open attendance. Since 1987, the Mind and Life Institute has hosted small biennial meetings with western scientists and the Dalai Lama at his residence in Dharamsala, India.

Mind and Life XI: Investigating the Mind consist of sessions on three dimensions of mental functioning extensively investigated by both Buddhism and biobehavioral science: Attention and Cognitive Control, Emotion, and Mental Imagery. >from *Mind and Life XI: Investigating the Mind: Exchanges between Buddhism and Biobehavioral Science*. September 13-14, 2003

related context
meditation' biological impact. february 18, 2003
> trance passages: explores science of altered states of consciousness. march 7, 2002

see your mind through a strobe light powered by a ritual tibetan incense
> see also the tibetan stroboscope by d.a. levy

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